Intellectual disabilities can be generated both by biological causes (genetic and non-genetic) and by environmental causes. Biological causes can be divided into:

  • genetic biological causes;
  • non-genetic biological causes;
  • environmental causes.


  • We talk about genetic causes of intellectual disabilities, when there are anomalies in a single gene or structural anomalies of chromosomes. Among the best known genetic causes is, for example, Down syndrome.

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