Artificial nutrition is the therapeutic procedure through which it is possible to meet the nutritional needs of patients who are unable to feed themselves sufficiently by natural means.
It is distinguished in two types, according to the mode of administration of nutrients:
1. Enteral Nutrition: administration in the gastrointestinal tract through the use of devices called probes or tubes that allow the food and / or water directly into the stomach or intestine bypassing the oropharyngeal tract;
2. Parenteral Nutrition: administration of nutrients in their elemental form (glucose, lipids, amino acids) directly into the bloodstream through devices called venous catheters.
In both cases, in order to safely and accurately administer nutrients, an electronic pump and tubes called defluxers are often used.
In addition, to avoid local or systemic complications related to infection or inflammation, it is necessary to perform dressing procedures and management of nutritional accesses (probe / probe or venous catheter) using appropriate nursing equipment.